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Table 3 Factors associated with utilization of outpatient health services

From: The association between health insurance status and utilization of health services in rural Northern Ghana: evidence from the introduction of the National Health Insurance Scheme

Variable   Outpatient health services
Categories % Utilized Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Health insurance status Insured 7.9 2.06 (1.9–2.3) 2.51 (2.3–2.8)b
Uninsured 3.9 1 1
Age 0–4 14.3 4.11(3.7–4.6) 2.72 (2.2–3.3)b
5–17 4.5 1.17 (1.0–1.3) 1.19 (1.0–1.4)
18–34 3.9 1 1
35–59 6.9 1.85 (1.7–2.1) 1.55 (1.4–1.8)b
60–69 8.9 2.39 (2.1–2.8) 1.75 (1.4–2.1)b
70+ (aged) 9.8 2.67 (2.3–3.1) 1.67 (1.3–2.1)b
Gender Male 5.6 1 1
Female 7.2 1.31 (1.2–1.4) 1.21 (1.1–1.3)b
Educational level No education 7.2 1.29 (1.0–1.6) 1.01 (0.8–1.3)
Primary 4.4 0.77 (0.6–0.9) 0.93 (0.7–1.2)
Secondary 5.7 0.91 (0.7–1.1) 1.12 (0.9–1.5)
Tertiary 10.2 1 1
Below school going agea 10.2 1.88 (1.5–2.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.7)
Religion Traditional & other 6.4 1.10 (0.94–1.29) NS
Christianity 6.5 1.10 (0.9–1.3) NS
Islam 5.9 1 NS
Ethnicity Kasem 5.9 1 1
Nankam 6.5 1.09 (1.0–1.2) 1.33 (1.2–1.5)b
Buli 12.5 2.24 (1.9–2.7) 2.91 (2.4–3.6)b
Other 7.5 1.27 (1.0–16) 0.98 (0.8–1.3)
Location Rural 6.2 1 1
Urban 7.9 1.28 (1.2–1.4) 1.29 (1.1–1.5)b
Household size 1 member 10.7 1.83 (1.5–2.2) 1.36 (1.1–1.8)b
2–4 members 7.2 1.19 (1.1–1.3) 1.36 (1.1–1.8)b
5+ members 6.1 1 1
Socio-economic status Poorest 6.3 1 1
Poorer 6.1 0.96 (0.9–1.1) 0.97 (0.9–1.1)
Poor 6.2 0.98 (0.9–1.1) 1.10 (0.9–1.2)
Less poor 6.3 1.00 (0.9–1.1) 1.04 (0.9–1.2)
Least poor 7.7 1.24 (1.1–1.4) 1.23 (1.0–1.4)
Recent illness or injury Yes 42.9 34.14 (31.3–37.2) 32.4 (29.4–35.8)b
No 3.8 1 1
Self-assessed health status Poor or very poor 25.8 5.49 (6.5–8.9) 2.08 (1.7–2.5)b
Good or very good 5.9 1 1
Don’t know 5.2 0.87 (0.62–1.2) 0.89 (0.6–1.3)
Chronic medication Yes 32.9 7.58 (6.5–8.9) 2.79 (2.2–3.5)b
No 93.9 1 1
Don’t Know 7.4 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 0.82 (0.3–1.9)
  1. The reference group for the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) is indicated by one
  2. NS not significant in both bivariate and multivariate analyses
  3. aRepresenting infants who have not yet attained school going age in order to be in school
  4. bSignificant in multivariate analyses