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Table 1 Preschool developmental assessment methods in Ghana

From: A method to develop vocabulary checklists in new languages and their validity to assess early language development

Preschool score Method
 Pre-academic skills Parents’ evaluation of developmental status: developmental milestones pre-academic subscale.
 Paired-associate memory The child was taught novel names for eight objects and tested for recall and recognition.
 Language Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY-II) body part naming and identification and comprehension of instruction sub-tests.
 Block design Adapted British Abilities Scales pattern construction sub-test.
 Visual search Adapted NEPSY visual search sub-test.
 Inhibitory control: head/toe task Head/toe sub-test of the International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA).
 Inhibitory control: delay of gratification Whether the child chose to receive one treat immediately or to wait for two, three, or four treats at the end of the second, third, and fourth tasks, respectively.
 Cognitive factor score Factor score calculated as the first component of a factor analysis using principal-axis factoring method including all cognitive z-scores except delay of gratification, which was the only score that was not strongly associated with the others. This component accounted for 79% of the variance in these scores.
 Fine motor National Institute of Health (NIH) Toolbox 9-Hole Pegboard test.
 Socioemotional Competence and Difficulties Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
 Behavior rating scale Adapted from the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA) Assessor Report.