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Table 5 Predictors of post-diagnosis cost among TB cases on treatment in districts of southwestern Ethiopia January to December 2015

From: Pre- and post-diagnosis costs of tuberculosis to patients on Directly Observed Treatment Short course in districts of southwestern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

Variable Mean(SD) Unadjusted expacoefficient (95% CI) P value Adjusted expbcoefficient (95% CI) P value
Gender Male 119.73(0.1) Ref.   Ref.  
Female 112.51(0.1) 0.94(0.83, 1.06) 0.3 0.92(0.83, 1.02) 0.07
Residence Urban 94.02(0.11)     
Rural 154.7(0.08) 1.64(1.48, 1.83) < 0.001 1.48(1.34, 1.64) < 0.001*
Educational status Illiterate 137.15(0.09) Ref   Ref  
Primary 117.35(0.09) 0.86(0.74, 0.98) 0.03 0.87(0.77, 0.97) 0.02*
Secondary and above 97.79(0.08) 0.71(0.60, 0.84) < 0.001 0.83(0.72, 0.95) 0.01*
HIV result Positive 123.52(0.1) 1.06(0.88, 1.28) 0.5 1.13(0.97, 1.30) 0.1
Negative 116.20(0.1) Ref.   Ref.  
Mode of diagnosis Bacteriological 118.25(0.1) Ref.   Ref.  
Clinical 115.82(0.1) 0.98(0.87, 1.10) 0.7 0.96(0.87, 1.05) 0.3
Treatment center Hospital 103.05(0.1) 0.78(0.70, 0.88) < 0.001 0.82(0.74, 0.90) < 0.001*
Health center 131.43(0.1)     
Travel time to treatment center > 1 h 105.7(0.08) 1.37(1.22, 1.55) < 0.001 1.09(1.02, 1.21) 0.03*
≤ 1 h 145.14(0.09) Ref.   Ref.  
Patient delayc 1.003(1.002, 1.004) < 0.001 1.003(1.001, 1.003) < 0.001*
Provider delayc 1.002(1.001, 1.003) < 0.001 1.002(1.001, 1.002) < 0.001*
Action before HCF visit None 111.85(0.11) Ref.   Ref.  
Took actiond 137.34(0.1) 1.23(1.07, 1.41) 0.003 1.08(0.98, 1.28) 0.1
TB diagnosed HCF Public 116.37(0.1) Ref.    
Private 121.27(0.1) 1.04(0.87, 1.24) 0.5 0.95(0.83, 1.09) 0.5
Hospitalized for treatment Yes 240.82(0.1) 2.13(1.61, 2.80) < 0.001 2.3(1.84, 2.88)  
< 0.001*
No 113.3(0.1) Ref.   Ref.  
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. aExponent to the power of 10
  3. bAdjusted for variables in the table
  4. cVariable treated as continuous
  5. dSelf-treatment, used holy water, consult traditional healer