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Table 7 Effect of JGY implementation on health services utilization—maternal health

From: Effect of reliable electricity on health facilities, health information, and child and maternal health services utilization: evidence from rural Gujarat, India

VARIABLES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
At least one ANC check-up At least three ANC check-ups ANC check-up in the first trimester Delivery in health facility Delivery in public facility Delivery in private facility
Post*Gujarat (JGY program effect) − 0.005 (− 0.050–0.040) 0.038 (− 0.022–0.098) 0.095*** (0.023–0.166) − 0.009 (− 0.058–0.039) 0.042 (− 0.009–0.094) − 0.026 (− 0.077–0.025)
Gujarat − 0.225*** (−0.269 to − 0.180) − 0.225*** (− 0.298 to − 0.152) − 0.164*** (− 0.236 to − 0.092) 0.080*** (0.021–0.139) 0.133*** (0.080–0.185) − 0.036 (− 0.098–0.027)
Post (delivery in 2007–2008) 0.027 (− 0.097–0.150) − 0.020 (− 0.207–0.167) 0.151* (− 0.028–0.329) − 0.023 (− 0.197–0.150) 0.001 (− 0.146–0.148) −0.073 (− 0.231–0.085)
Age at delivery 0.012*** (0.005–0.019) 0.023*** (0.009–0.036) 0.013* (− 0.001–0.028) 0.008 (− 0.009–0.025) 0.006 (− 0.008–0.021) 0.001 (− 0.016–0.017)
Age squared − 0.000** (− 0.000 to − 0.000) − 0.000*** (− 0.001 to − 0.000) − 0.000 (− 0.000–0.000) 0.000 (− 0.000–0.000) − 0.000 (− 0.000–0.000) 0.000 (− 0.000–0.000)
Total number of births − 0.018*** (− 0.025 to − 0.011) − 0.034*** (− 0.044 to − 0.024) − 0.035*** (− 0.046 to − 0.025) − 0.070*** (− 0.079 to − 0.062) − 0.022*** (− 0.031 to − 0.013) − 0.052*** (− 0.060 to − 0.044)
Years of schooling 0.015*** (0.012–0.017) 0.021*** (0.018–0.024) 0.018*** (0.015–0.021) 0.022*** (0.018–0.025) 0.006*** (0.003–0.009) 0.016*** (0.013–0.018)
Husband’s years of schooling 0.002* (− 0.000–0.003) 0.002* (− 0.000–0.003) 0.003*** (0.001–0.006) 0.002** (0.000–0.004) 0.000 (− 0.001–0.002) 0.002*** (0.001–0.003)
Age of the head 0.000 (− 0.000–0.001) 0.001*** (0.000–0.001) 0.000 (− 0.000–0.001) 0.000 (− 0.000–0.001) 0.000(− 0.001–0.001) 0.000 (− 0.000–0.001)
Female head 0.034* (− 0.001–0.069) 0.005 (− 0.043–0.054) − 0.036* (− 0.079–0.007) 0.009 (− 0.031–0.048) 0.000 (− 0.032–0.032) 0.002 (− 0.025–0.030)
Household size − 0.001 (− 0.004–0.001) − 0.004** (− 0.008 to − 0.001) − 0.003 (− 0.007–0.001) − 0.004** (− 0.007 to − 0.001) 0.001 (− 0.003–0.004) − 0.004*** (− 0.006 to − 0.002)
Standard of living index 0.004*** (0.002–0.005) 0.007*** (0.005–0.010) 0.005*** (0.003–0.007) 0.006*** (0.004–0.007) − 0.006*** (− 0.007 to − 0.004) 0.009*** (0.007–0.011)
Distance to nearest facility − 0.001 (− 0.004–0.001) − 0.001 (− 0.003–0.002) − 0.001 (− 0.005–0.002) − 0.003** (−0.006 to − 0.000) − 0.004*** (− 0.006 to − 0.002) 0.001 (− 0.001–0.004)
Observations 9455 9503 9426 9503 9503 9503
  1. Reported coefficients are probit marginal effects. Regressions include religion and social group dummies, district fixed effects, delivery year fixed effects, and district-level pre-JGY health status interacted with delivery year dummies. Standard errors clustered at the district level. 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1