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Table 4 Bivariate analysis between type of health care-seeking behavior and explanatory variables, (N = 866)

From: Determinants of health seeking behavior for chronic non-communicable diseases and related out-of-pocket expenditure: results from a cross-sectional survey in northern Bangladesh

Variable and its measurementNo care or self-care
(N = 139)
Semi-qualified professional care
(N = 364)
Qualified professional care
(N = 363)
Test statistics and P value
Individual characteristics
 Age (years), mean (SD)44.0 (16.5)42.6 (16.1)45.0 (16.1)F (2, 863) = 1.92,
P = 0.151
 Duration of illness (months), mean (SD)53.6 (60.1)44.7 (65.6)39.1 (55.4)F (2, 863) = 2.95,
P = 0.051
 Sex, n (%)
  Male63 (45.3)174 (47.8)164 (45.2)X2 = 0.57, df = 2,
P = 0.752
  Female76 (54.7)190 (52.2)199 (54.8)
 Education, n (%)
  No schooling83 (59.7)189 (51.9)163 (44.9)X2 = 9.54, df = 2,
P = 0.0082
  Primary level and above56 (40.3)175 (48.1)200 (55.1)
 Marital status, n (%)
  Currently not married14 (10.1)34 (9.3)27 (7.4)X2 = 1.25, df = 2,
P = 0.542
  Currently married125 (89.9)330 (90.7)336 (92.6)
 Occupational status, n (%)
  Non-income generating77 (55.4)202 (55.5)207 (57.0)X2 = 0.21, df = 2,
P = 0.902
  Income generating62 (44.6)162 (44.5)156 (43.0)
 Being household head, n (%)
  No77 (55.4)202 (55.5)213 (58.7)X2 = 0.89, df = 2,
P = 0.642
  Yes62 (44.6)162 (44.5)150 (41.3)
 Comorbidity, n (%)
  No comorbidity122 (87.8)342 (94.0)345 (95.0)X2 = 8.94, df = 2,
P = 0.012
  Comorbidity17 (12.2)22 (6.0)18 (5.0)
 Category of CNCDs, n (%)
  Minor CNCDs103 (74.1)267 (73.4)185 (51.0)X2 = 46.79, df = 2,
P < 0.0012
  Major CNCDs36 (25.9)97 (26.7)178 (49.0)
Household characteristics
 Household size (members), mean (SD)4.25 (1.68)4.15 (1.63)4.52 (1.78)F (2, 863) = 4.29, P = 0.011
 Proportion of household members with CNCD, mean (SD)0.46 (0.25)0.45 (0.25)0.34 (0.21)F (2, 863) = 22.89,
P < 0.0011
Asset Quintile, n (%)
 1st quintile (Poorest)31 (22.3)88 (24.2)36 (9.9)X2 = 35.35, df = 8,
P < 0.0011
 2nd quintile24 (17.3)69 (19.0)70 (19.3)
 3rd quintile22 (15.8)62 (17.0)66 (18.2)
 4th quintile32 (23.0)75 (20.6)76 (20.9)
 5th quintile30 (21.6)70 (19.2)115 (31.7)
Microfinance involvement of household head and/or spouse, n (%)
 No57 (41.0)173 (47.5)180 (49.6)X2 = 2.98, df = 2,
P = 0.232
 Yes82 (59.0)191 (52.5)183 (50.4)
Presence of acute illness in the household, n (%)
 No34 (24.5)60 (16.5)110 (30.3)X2 = 19.35, df = 2,
P < 0.0012
 Yes105 (75.5)304 (83.5)253 (69.7)
Contextual characteristics
 Distance to the referral public health facility of the sub-district (km), mean (SD)4.82 (3.69)5.25 (3.64)4.59 (3.57)F (2, 863) = 3.03, P = 0.051
 Rural or urban residence, n (%)
  Rural54 (38.9)165 (45.3)145 (39.9)X2 = 2.85, df = 2,
P = 0.242
  Urban85 (61.2)199 (54.7)218 (60.1)
 Sub-district of residence, n (%)
  Rangpur Sadar16 (11.5)25 (6.9)42 (11.6)X2 = 85.11, df = 8,
P < 0.0012
  Mithapukur98 (70.5)232 (63.7)143 (39.4)
  Badarganj4 (2.9)8 (2.2)37 (10.2)
  Pirganj5 (3.6)33 (9.1)71 (19.6)
  Pirgacha16 (11.5)66 (18.1)70 (19.3)
  1. CNCDs, chronic non-communicable diseases; F, F statistic; X2, chi-square value; df, degree of freedom; SD, standard deviation; km, kilometer
  2. 1Test statistics and P values based on ANOVA for continuous variables
  3. 2Test statistics and P values based on chi2 tests (or Fisher exact tests) for categorical variables