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Table 3 Odds ratio between sociodemographic characteristics and diagnosed hypertension among respondents

From: Knowledge, attitude and behaviour on salt intake and its association with hypertension in the Malaysian population: findings from MyCoSS (Malaysian Community Salt Survey)

Socio-demographic characteristics OR (95% CI) p value
Gender
 Male 0.40 (0.13, 1.19) 0.099
 Female 1 (ref)  
Age group (year)
 <35 1 (ref)  
 35–44 1.66 (0.07, 41.08) 0.755
 45–54 3.63 (0.21, 62.89) 0.372
 55–64 1.99 (0.11, 36.11) 0.639
 > 64 2.75 (0.13, 58.77) 0.514
Ethnicity
 Malay 1 (ref)  
 Chinese 0.47 (0.14, 1.63) 0.232
 Indians 2.00 (0.43, 9.31) 0.372
 Other/Bumiputera 1.07 (0.43, 2.66) 0.891
Marital status
 Never married 0.11 (0.00, 18.39) 0.400
 Married 1 (ref)  
 Separated/widower 1.55 (0.55, 4.40) 0.402
Education level
 None 1 (ref)  
 Primary 2.36 (0.78, 7.19) 0.128
 Secondary 2.62 (0.78, 8.86) 0.119
 Higher 0.96 (0.21, 4.47) 0.956
Occupation
 Public sector 1 (ref)  
 Private sector 0.47 (0.05, 4.65) 0.516
 Self-employed 0.52 (0.10, 2.69) 0.429
 Housewife 0.26 (0.05, 1.24) 0.089
 Unemployed 0.48 (0.09, 2.47) 0.374
 Student/others 0.47 (0.0.84, 2.58) 0.378
Household income (RM)
 < 1000 1 (ref)  
 1000–1999 0.88 (0.35, 2.26) 0.798
 2000–2999 0.28 (0.13, 0.62) 0.002
 3000–3999 0.28 (0.07, 1.12) 0.071
 > 3999 1.74 (0.63, 4.83) 0.280
Do you think that a high salt diet could cause a serious health
 No/do not know 1 (ref)  
 Yes 0.23 (0.06, 0.85) 0.029
What sort of problem (hypertension)   
 No 1 (ref)  
 Yes 1.63 (0.78, 3.42) 0.195
How important to you is lowering the salt/sodium in your diet?   
 Not important 1 (ref)  
 Very important 1.48 (0.92, 2.75) 0.217
Do you do anything on a regular basis to control your salt or sodium intake?
 No/do not know 1 (ref)  
 Yes 0.44 (0.21, 0.91) 0.028