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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics

From: Maternal nutrition and its intergenerational links to non-communicable disease metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

  Site Study design Number of participants Age of adult offspring at follow-up Exposure Outcome
De Rooij et al. [14] Netherlands Cohort 672 58 Famine Glucose metabolism (FPG, 120 minute glucose)
De Rooij et al. [15] Netherlands Cohort 783 58 Famine Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Huang et al. [16] China Cohort 33247 (total N=35025) 32 Famine Blood pressure (prevalence of hypertension)
Li et al. [17] China   2959 (total N=7874) 43–45 Famine Glucose metabolism: FPG, prevalence of hyperglycemia
Ravelli et al. [18] Netherlands Cohort 702 51–55 Famine Glucose metabolism (FPG, 30 minute glucose, 120 minute glucose)
Blood lipids
Roseboom et al. [19] Netherlands Cohort 739 51–55 Famine Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Roseboom et al. [20] Netherlands Cohort 704 50 Famine Blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, LDL:HDL, Apo-A1, Apo-B)
Stanner et al. [21] Russia Cross-sectional 549 52–53 Famine Blood pressure: SBP, DBP
Stein et al. [22] Netherlands Cohort 971 56–62 Famine Blood pressure (SBP, DBP, prevalence of hypertension)
Wang et al. [23] China Cross-sectional 2420 (total N=6445) 52–53 Famine Blood pressure: (SBP, DBP, prevalence of hypertension)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Zheng et al. [24] China Cross-sectional 3696 (total N=5040) 44–51 Famine Blood pressure (SBP, DBP, prevalence of hypertension)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Loos et al. [25] Belgium Cross-sectional 800 18–34 GWG, ppBMI Glucose metabolism (FPG, fasting plasma proinsulin, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA)
Mamun et al. [26] Australia Cohort 2271 21 GWG Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Hochner et al. [27] Israel Cohort 1130 32 GWG, ppBMI Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Hrolfsdottir et al. [28] Denmark Cohort 308 19–20 GWG Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Mi et al. [29] China Cross-sectional 627 41–47 GWG
BMI
Blood pressure(SBP, DBP, prevalence of hypertension)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Scheers-Andersson et al. [30] Sweden Cohort 9816 18.3 GWG Blood pressure (SBP, DBP, prevalence of hypertension)
Webb et al. [31] Guatemala Longitudinal 450 21–29 GWG, BMI, dietary intake (protein and micronutrient supplementation) Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Hochner et al. [27] Israel Cohort 1130 32 GWG, ppBMI Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Loos et al. [25] Belgium Cross-sectional 800 18–34 GWG, ppBMI Glucose metabolism (FPG, fasting plasma proinsulin, fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA)
Mi et al. [29] China Cross-sectional 627 41–47 GWG, BMI Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Webb et al. [31] Guatemala Longitudinal 450 21–29 GWG, BMI, dietary intake (protein and micronutrient supplementation) Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Campbell et al. [32] UK Cohort 253 40.6 Maternal dietary intake: protein, animal protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Conlisk et al. [33] Guatemala Longitudinal 429 24.4 Maternal dietary intake: protein and micronutrient supplementation Glucose metabolism (FPG)
Danielsen et al. [34] Denmark Cohort 428 20 Maternal dietary intake: GI, GL Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Macleod et al. [35] UK RCT 118 22–23 Maternal dietary intake: protein and carbohydrate supplementation Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Blood lipids
Glucose metabolism
Roseboom et al. [36] Netherlands Cohort 739 50 Maternal dietary intake: protein/carbohydrate ratio Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Rytter et al. [37] Denmark RCT 243 18–19 Maternal dietary intake: fish oil supplementation Blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TAG, Apo-A1, Apo-B)
Rytter et al. [38] Denmark RCT 180 19 Maternal dietary intake: fish oil supplementation Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Rytter et al. [39] Denmark Cohort 443 19–20 Maternal dietary intake: fish oil supplementation Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Shiell et al. [40] UK Cohort 626 27–30 Maternal dietary intake: meat and fish consumption plus low carbohydrate Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
Webb et al. [31] Guatemala Longitudinal 450 21–29 GWG, BMI, dietary intake (protein and micronutrient supplementation) Blood pressure (SBP, DBP)
  1. GWG, gestational weight gain; BMI, body mass index; ppBMI, pre-pregnancy body mass index; GI, GlycFPG = Fasting Plasma Glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TAG, triacylglycerides; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance