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Table 1 Results of bivariate relationship between the key child health service utilization and socioeconomic variables, EDHS 2016. Ethiopia

From: Inequalities in adherence to the continuum of maternal and child health service utilization in Ethiopia: multilevel analysis

Variables* At least 4 ANC visits
Number (%)
χ2 (p value) Institutional delivery χ2 (p value) Postnatal care service χ2 (p value)
Sex of the child
Male 1005 (31.9) 0.276 1237 (26.0) 0.232 566 (11.9) 0.249
Female 992 (33.7)   1190 (26.7)   509 (11.4)  
Child’s birth order
First 480 (43.0) 0.000 841 (50.2) 0.000 284 (17.0) 0.010
Second and above 1517 (30.5)   1586 (21.0)   791 (10.5)  
Age of the mother
15–24 y 425 (31.8) 0.000 679 (35.4) 0.000 251 (13.1) 0.000
25–34 y 1132 (36.3)   1273 (25.7)   588 (11.9)  
34+ y 440 (26.8)   475 (20.3)   237 (10.1)  
Residence
Urban 512 (63.4) 0.000 803 (78.6) 0.000 380 (37.2) 0.000
Rural 1485 (28.1)   1623 (19.8)   695 (8.5)  
Household size
0–3 member 330 (39.8) 0.000 439 (48.4) 0.000 202 (22.3) 0.000
4–6 members 1114 (35.2)   1324 (28.2)   571 (12.2)  
7 and above members 553 (26.3)   663 (18.4)   302 (8.4)  
Education of mother
No education 975 (25.1) 0.000 990 (16.1) 0.000 487 (7.9) 0.000
Primary level 670 (39.5)   908 (37.3)   342 (14.1)  
Secondary & higher level 351 (68.7)   528 (83.8)   246 (39.0)  
Education of father
No education 805 (25.9) 0.000 879 (18.6) 0.000 425 (9.0) 0.000
Primary level 754 (34.3)   857 (24.8)   353 (10.2)  
Secondary & higher level 438 (55.5)   690 (66.7)   298 (28.8)  
Parity
0–3 1161 (39.1) 0.000 1589 (40.0) 0.000 664 (16.7) 0.000
4–6 562 (28.9)   579 (18.1)   282 (8.8)  
7 and above 274 (23.2)   259 (12.7)   129 (6.3)  
Ever terminated pregnancy
No 1805 (32.5) 0.147 2208 (26.3) 0.193 967 (11.5) 0.090
Yes 192 (34.8)   218 (26.6)   108 (13.2)  
Maternal autonomy
Yes, some autonomy 492 (35.8) 0.004 636 (30.8) 0.000 276 (13.4) 0.004
No autonomy 1505 (31.9)   1791 (25.0)   799 (11.2)  
Wealth index
Poorest/poorer 606 (23.2) 0.000 648 (15.0) 0.000 241 (5.6) 0.000
Middle 373 (28.6)   438 (22.6)   194 (10.0)  
Richest/richer 1018 (46.6)   1341 (45.2)   640 (21.6)  
Type of family structure
Monogamous 1710 (33.5) 0.000 2094 (27.1) 0.000 904 (11.7) 0.000
Polygamous 133 (22.9)   170 (17.0)   76 (7.6)  
Intimate partners violence/IPV
No or low violence 410 (27.1) 0.000 436 (18.6) 0.000 166 (7.1) 0.000
Mild violence 607 (30.6)   706 (22.9)   335 (10.9)  
High violence 980 (37.7)   1284 (33.9)   574 (15.1)  
Religion
Orthodox 938 (39.1) 0.000 1172 (36.8) 0.000 579 (18.2) 0.000
Muslim 585 (27.3)   734 (19.6)   276 (7.4)  
Others 474 (30.4)   521 (22.8)   221 (9.7)  
Access to radio
Yes 777 (46.5) 0.000 946 (39.1) 0.000 483 (19.9) 0.000
No 1220 (27.6)   1481 (21.8)   593 (8.7)  
ANC visits
 < 4 times   840 (20.5) 0.000 447 (10.9) 0.000
 > 4 times   1158 (58.0)   628 (31.4)  
Place of delivery
Home   220 (3.2) 0.000
Institution   855 (35.2)  
  1. Except for sex of the child, all the variables had a strong chi-square association with the respective outcomes (p < 0.001)